Directions optimizing activities local government organs
Annotation: The article analyzes the problems of the development of local self-government that need to be solved in spite of the crisis situation in the economy and the whole institutional and political system and the conclusions drawn.
Bibliographic description of the article for the citation:
Татьяна Козьменко. Directions optimizing activities local government organs//Science online: International Scientific e-zine - 2018. - №11. - https://nauka-online.com/en/publications/gosudarstvennoe-upravlenie/2018/11/napryami-optimizatsiya-diyalnosti-organiv-mistsevogo-samovryaduvannya/
Student of Master’s Degree in Public Control and Administration of the
Kharkov Trade and Economics Institute of
Kyiv National Trade and Economics University
Козьменко Тетяна Володимирівна
Харківського торговельно-економічного інституту
Київського національного торговельно-економічного університету
DIRECTIONS OPTIMIZING ACTIVITIES LOCAL GOVERNMENT ORGANS
НАПРЯМИ ОПТИМІЗАЦІЯ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ ОРГАНІВ МІСЦЕВОГО САМОВРЯДУВАННЯ
Summary. The article analyzes the problems of the development of local self-government that need to be solved in spite of the crisis situation in the economy and the whole institutional and political system and the conclusions drawn.
Key words: local self-government, local self-government reforms, services, territorial community.
Анотація. В статті проаналізовані проблеми розвитку місцевого самоврядування, які потребують розв’язання попри кризовий стан економіки і всієї інституціонально-політичної системи та зроблені висновки.
Ключові слова: місцеве самоврядування, реформи місцевого самоврядування, послуги, територіальна громада.
Statement of the problem. The problems of reforming recent years show that at this stage Ukraine faces an urgent strategic task of modern reform of local self-government and territorial organization of power. The constantly growing demands of the society to the authorities require the search for modern mechanisms for resolving conflicts between private and public interests, public and state views, individual and managerial approaches to solving socio-economic, political, ethnic, and social problems.
Analysis of recent research and publications. The issues of improving the efficiency of local self-government were: V. M. Babayev, V. B. Dzyuonzyuk, V. M. Kampo, A. O. Kuleshov, M. A. Leschecko, S. M. Malasho, J. Malik, V. Mamonova, O. Novikova, A. V. Torgonska, A. O. Chemerys. However, in general, this issue in the scientific literature remains inadequately investigated, in particular, it concerns aspects of optimal activity of local self-government in Ukraine.
The main material. In the context of the severe economic and political crisis in Ukraine, the stability of the livelihoods of territorial communities depends to a large extent on the activities of local self-government bodies. Since the adoption of the Constitution of Ukraine and the basic norms of local self-government, local self-government development has actually stopped at the level of territorial communities of cities of oblast significance, since the overwhelming majority of territorial communities due to their excessive fragmentation and the extremely weak financial and financial base proved to be incapable of fulfilling all the powers of local self-government.
The existing system of local self-government in Ukraine today does not meet the needs of society. In a situation of prolonged confrontation in society, local self-government bodies, as representative communities elected by the communities, should remain the basis of the stable provision of the inhabitants of the territorial communities with the necessary services.
People’s councils, initiated in a number of communities, should become the basis of dialogue and interaction, an effective mechanism for civil society control over the activities of local authorities. Formation of real local self-government in accordance with the European Charter of Local Self-Government is one of the first and immediate steps in stabilizing the situation in the country.
The concept of local self-government reform has long been prepared and agreed upon by all interested parties. These steps are the basis for establishing self-regulatory processes in society. The reform of local self-government and territorial organization of power should be carried out on the basis of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, the provisions of the European Charter of Local Self-Government based on the following principles :
- the rule of law and legality;
- openness, transparency and public participation;
- generalities of local self-government;
- availability of administrative and social services;
- accountability and accountability of bodies and officials of local self-government to the territorial community;
- control of local self-government bodies to executive authorities within delegated powers;
- legal, organizational and financial capacity of local self-government;
- state support of local self-government;
- partnership between the state and local self-government;
- stimulation of economic development of territories.
Today, the most relevant for realization of the tasks of reforms is the division of powers in the system of local self-government bodies and executive authorities on the ground at different levels of the administrative-territorial system on the principle of subsidiarity and the division of powers between local executive authorities and local self-government bodies on the principles of decentralization of power .
A special role is played by the task of maximizing the involvement of the population in making managerial decisions, promoting the development of forms of participatory democracy.
It is necessary to develop projects and adopt legislative acts on the implementation of the mechanism of participatory democracy, improve the legal regulation of the procedures for holding general meetings of residents of the territorial community at the place of residence and establish additional guarantees of the activities of the bodies of self-organization of the population, create favorable legal conditions for wide involvement of the population in the adoption of administrative decisions by the authorities local self-government and their executive bodies.
Continuous improvement of local self-government, which plays the role of a mechanism for coordinating the interests of local communities and state institutions, is the basis of the stability and full development of the state. An important direction for the development of the constitutional and legal principles of local self-government in Ukraine at the present stage is to bring them in line with the provisions of the European Charter of Local Self-Government.
True self-government is possible only on the basis of the direct creative initiative of local residents, which will be implemented at this institute of civil society. The low level of social activity of members of the local community is offset by excessive interference in public relations by the institutions of state power and vice versa – solving on a stand-alone basis a large number of issues of local importance reduces the need for the use of state-compulsory measures. Effective public structures are capable of disabling arbitrariness of state bodies, defending their own interests, organizing self-sufficient livelihoods, taking over part of power .
Analyzing the system of local self-government of Ukraine, it can be attributed to a mixed model, because it contains separate elements of different world models of local self-government. The borrowing of some distinctive features from different models of local self-government, together with positive results, leads to negative, conflicts, because some aspects are mutually exclusive. The existing system of territorial organization of power has demonstrated the inability to effectively and effectively influence the processes of socio-economic and cultural development of the territories in a market economy, and to provide a high-quality level of public service provision for the population that meets European standards.
Only the model of local government will be adequately perceived by the Ukrainian population, which will contribute to the development of its identity and to stimulate the social, economic and cultural progress of the communities. The combination of universal ethical, legal, scientific, economic standards with the revival of Ukrainian culture is a strategy that opens a credible prospect of local self-government development in Ukraine.
The imbalance of the political system, the growth of economic crises, and the regional confrontation have led to the need for a transformation of the management system of society, regions, and the creation of a critical mass of professionals in the political and managerial spheres.
The well-being of society depends on the professionalism and competence of the managerial staff. The main problems that undermine the work of local self-government bodies and the system of public administration reduce their effectiveness, cause distrust of citizens, members of territorial communities to local self-government bodies and create obstacles for further development, and therefore need to be resolved, there is :
- crisis of regional governance, which consists in the insufficient distribution of powers of local authorities;
- inconsistency of personnel policy in local self-government bodies;
- high degree of politicization and corruption of local self-government officials;
- lack of a professional approach to the selection of local self-government personnel;
- unsatisfactory level of qualification of a significant part of local self-government officials, their legal and political culture;
- the inability to put into practice the latest management technologies for state and municipal management.
The inconsistency of the level of professionalism of local government officials with the needs of the development of the state and society as a whole generates dysfunction, reduces the efficiency of the work of local self-government bodies, makes it necessary to determine the mechanisms and ways of its formation. In these conditions, an important factor in improving the system of local self-government is filling it with professionally trained, competent personnel.
The problem of forming the personnel potential of local self-government bodies is that in local self-government there is no distinction between political activity and professional service, services in local self-government bodies, which complicates the high-quality observance of the principles of this service.
Today, powers between executive authorities and local self-government are not properly distributed, their unjustified centralization, duplication, and unwarranted delegation take place.
These factors complicate the management system, lead to the creation of duplicate management structures, significant financial costs and, as a result, a reduction in the efficiency of the solution of local affairs.
The professionalism of an official is intended to ensure the qualitative performance of official duties, the ability to solve complex tasks, readiness to improve their qualifications. The main criteria of professionalism include :
- availability of education;
- competence (knowledge, skills and abilities);
- availability of practical experience;
- discipline, responsibility;
- compliance with legislation;
- political neutrality;
- availability of organizational, managerial abilities, initiative, creativity;
- ability to advance in an official career;
- moral, ethical qualities.
Professionalism consists in the development of a human resources management system that would ensure the quality management of the personnel by constantly updating the structure, content and technologies of this process in accordance with the needs of the community, created the appropriate conditions for the disclosure of the person in the professional activity.
The task of qualitative updating of personnel of local self-government bodies can not be solved without the use of innovative technologies of personnel management.
A local government official must have managerial and communicative skills, including theoretical knowledge (in the field of public administration, law, economics, etc.); professional skills (ability to apply methods, management tools, use of information technologies) and practical experience; communication skills, ability to work in a team, technique of negotiation; personal qualities: ability to study continuously, flexibility, mobility, creativity, complex and logical thinking; loyalty to democratic values: compliance with laws, focus on welfare.
A professional standard can become a normative document that describes the requirements of the local self-government body to the position and officials, their general professional and narrow professional competencies. Implementation of monitoring and audit of personnel in the personnel work of local self-government bodies will allow to provide higher quality professionalization and competence of the service institute in them, to estimate the volume and nature of staffing needs, the degree of compliance of available human capital with a specific governance body in order to effectively provide management and administrative services to the population, as well determine the optimal course of personnel policy aimed at improving the quantitative and qualitative composition of local self-government officials lead.
It is important to create such conditions in which local government bodies would be mutually interested in the professional development of all personnel and a specific employee in improving the efficiency of managerial work. The problem of professional development of employees requires not only the solution of the question of the formation of the system and the creation of a network of training, but also filling it with a certain content. Officials of local self-government should have a higher degree of specialization, which will take into account the peculiarities of their activities.
The formation of a system of continuous vocational training of local government employees should become an urgent need and an important factor in strengthening the institution of local self-government.
Conclusions. The requirements for the personnel potential of local self-government are growing, therefore, it is necessary to use innovative technologies in the personnel work that would allow to manage human and social capital more effectively. The necessary reform of the system of local self-government, the conceptual basis of which is the growth of professionalism, competence, administrative culture of local self-government officials, and the development of their leadership capacity to ensure change in Ukrainian society.
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