Rubric: Экономика

Peculiarities of mandatory payments calculation in the process of customs clearance of import operations

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. Peculiarities of mandatory payments calculation in the process of customs clearance of import operations//Science online: International Scientific e-zine - 2020. - №2. - https://nauka-online.com/en/publications/ekonomika/2020/2/osobennosti-rascheta-obyazatelnyh-platezhej-v-protsesse-tamozhennogo-oformleniya-importnyh-operatsij/

Annotation: In the conditions that determine the current state of the Ukrainian economy, it is very important to deepen the relations with foreign suppliers and buyers in order to improve the quality of goods in the consumer market, expand it and create the opportunities for domestic goods to enter foreign markets. The identified problem is partially solved by well-organized foreign economic activity, and in particular by import activity as an integral part of it. In addition, information in the accounting and reporting system, which is the basis for management decisions, is a prerequisite for successful external cooperation. The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of the calculation of compulsory payments during the customs clearance of import transactions. The elements of the system of taxation of import operations of the enterprise are analyzed. The elements of each of the taxes that are paid on import, the order of determining the tax liabilities, its payment and the preparation of appropriate forms of reporting are identified. It has been found that some import operations are subject to partial or total tax exemption, that promotes the development of certain types of economic activity and enhances the social effect of importing such goods and supplying services. It has been determined that the customs value of goods is based on the price actually paid or payable for imported goods and depends on the terms of delivery according to INCOTERMS 2020. The main and additional methods of determining the customs value are distinguished. The amount of import duty, excise tax and value added tax are calculated depending on the type of tax rate set. The calculated amounts are stated in the customs declaration, which certifies the customs clearance of the goods and payment of the taxes. It is revealed that there is a need to develop a mechanism that could mutually satisfy the conflicts of interest between the state and the enterprise in the customs clearance of import operations.

The role of cryptocurrencies in financial and economic systems

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. The role of cryptocurrencies in financial and economic systems//Science online: International Scientific e-zine - 2020. - №2. - https://nauka-online.com/en/publications/ekonomika/2020/2/mesto-kriptovalyuty-v-finansovo-ekonomicheskoj-sisteme/

Annotation: The article is devoted to the actual problem of cryptocurrency functioning in the world market and its place in financial and economic systems. The emergence of virtual money (cryptocurrency) is driven by the constant development of technology and the economy. Currently, non-cash payments are more common. Cryptocurrency is becoming an innovative form of payment in the information society. Unlike traditional types of money, it can be a means of payment in electronic payment systems with a high level of protection against cybercrime. Every day, cryptocurrency is strengthening its role not only as a way of saving, but also as a means of payment in electronic payment systems. Purpose. Themain purpose of the study is to determine the place and role of cryptocurrency in financial and economic systems. Results. The experience of implementing and using cryptocurrencies and models of their regulation have been investigated, on the example of European countries. It has been found that the functioning of cryptocurrencies is a new challenge for government regulators of financial services markets. The cryptocurrencies most popular by their capitalization are compared. The strengths and weaknesses of virtual money, and the threats and prospects of their use in the financial and economic world market are identified. Further perspectives on the use of cryptocurrency at the country level and the ways to improve its position in the world economic system were substantiated. Conclusions. Analysed data in this article makes it possible to determine what a cryptocurrency is and its role in the financial and economic system. Cryptocurrency is a fairly new concept that has adapted to the current financial and credit system and is constantly evolving. Digital money has a future as it is very convenient not only for the average person but also for the whole country. It is possible to remove the drawbacks by developing effective laws regarding the use of cryptocurrency and the regulation of the rights and obligations of its users. In the future, thanks to transaction transparency and protection against virtual currency fraud, it can significantly reduce the level of corruption, drug business and the percentage of the shadow economy.

Вплив податкового навантаження на економіку країн Європи

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and . Вплив податкового навантаження на економіку країн Європи//Science online: International Scientific e-zine - 2020. - №2. - https://nauka-online.com/en/publications/ekonomika/2020/2/vpliv-podatkovogo-navantazhennya-na-ekonomiku-krayin-yevropi/

Annotation: Taxes are a major source of revenue to the state budget, and effective tax regulation of the economy requires the introduction of an acceptable level of tax burden on economic entities. Determining the optimal level of fiscal burden is an important task of the state's tax policy, which helps to maintain a sufficient level of filling the state budget and stimulate economic activity. This article builds an econometric model that investigates the impact of the tax burden on the growth of gross national product in Europe.

Analysis of calculations with debtors in wholesale

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and . Analysis of calculations with debtors in wholesale//Science online: International Scientific e-zine - 2020. - №2. - https://nauka-online.com/en/publications/ekonomika/2020/2/analiz-raschetov-s-debitorami-v-optovoj-torgovle/

Annotation: The article considers the analysis of settlements with debtors as a factor in increasing the efficiency of financial management of wholesale enterprises. A correct assessment of the actual state of settlements with debtors can positively affect the real solvency and creditworthiness of the enterprise. Outlines the main tasks of managing accounts receivable and the direction of the analytical study of receivables. The main indicators for assessing the status and quality of receivables of a wholesale trading company Private enterprise «Altapan» were calculated — the receivables turnover ratio, the length of the receivable repayment period, the share of receivables in the total volume of current assets, the ratio of receivables and payables, the receivables coverage ratio. To identify the effect of receivables on net profit, a correlation analysis was used. Based on the correlation field, we can hypothesize (for the general population) that the relationship between all possible values of X (current receivables) and Y (net profit) is exponential. The exponential regression equation is written and solved, and empirical regression coefficients are obtained. The parameters of the regression equation are calculated: sample means, sample variances, standard deviation. The coefficients of regression, elasticity, beta coefficient, empirical correlation ratio, and the value of the correlation index R. It is established that with a change in the volume of receivables by 1%, the net profit of the wholesale Private enterprise «Altapan» will decrease by 18%. In other words, X significantly affects Y. That is, an increase in X by the standard deviation Sx will reduce the mean Y by 97.7%. Recommendations are given on managing settlements with debtors based on an assessment of the main indicators of the condition and quality of receivables. For example, you should divide all customers into groups based on the history of cooperation, the importance of each of them and the current financial situation, use budgeting, draw up a payment calendar, and use other methods that will allow you to control the movement of incoming and outgoing cash flows.

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